Environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9.

Burgess JL, Kurzius-Spencer M, O’Rourke MK, Littau SR, Roberge J, Meza-Montenegro MM, Gutiérrez-Millán LE, Harris RB. 2013. Environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase-9. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 23:163–9. doi:10.1038/jes.2012.107.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental arsenic exposure and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In a cross-sectional study of residents of Arizona, USA (n=215) and Sonora, Mexico (n=163), drinking water was assayed for total arsenic, and daily drinking water arsenic intake was estimated. Urine was speciated for arsenic, and concentrations were adjusted for specific gravity. Serum was analyzed for MMP-9 using ELISA. Mixed model linear regression was used to assess the relation among drinking water arsenic concentration, drinking water arsenic intake, urinary arsenic sum of species (the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid), and MMP-9, controlling for autocorrelation within households. Drinking water arsenic concentration and intake were positively associated with MMP-9, both in crude analysis and after adjustment for gender, country/ethnicity, age, body mass index, current smoking, and diabetes. Urinary arsenic sum of species was positively associated with MMP-9 in multivariable analysis only. Using Akaike’s Information Criterion, arsenic concentration in drinking water provided a better fitting model of MMP-9 than either urinary arsenic or drinking water arsenic intake. In conclusion, arsenic exposure evaluated using all three exposure metrics was positively associated with MMP-9.